By Alspach B., Xu M.Y.

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**Additional resources for 1/2-Transitive Graphs of Order 3p**

**Example text**

Complete Ranking. In some network designs, actors are asked to rate or rank order all the other actors in the set for each measured relation. Such measurements reflect the intensity of strength of ties. Ratings require each respondent to assign a value or rating to each tie. Complete rankings require each respondent to rank their ties to all other actors. An example of a complete rank order design is the study by Bernard, Killworth, and Sailer (1980). They asked each of forty members of a social science research office to report the amount of communication with each other member of the office using the following procedure: .

They arranged (that is, ranked) the cards from most to least on how often they talked to others in ihe office during a normal working day. (page 194) Such data are conzplete rankings or complete rank orders. This questionnaire design is quite different from that employing ratings of the ties. Alternatively, one can gather ratings from each actor about their ties to other members on every relation. These ratings can be dichotomous, as in the Carley and Wendt (1988) study (ties are either present or absent), or valued, as in the Krackhardt and Stern (1988) study where ratings were made by choosing one of five possible categories for the strength of each tie.

These data are described at the end of this chapter. Yet another example comes from Katz and Proctor's (1959) study of ties in an eighth-grade classrooln of twenty-five boys and girls. These data consist of friendship choices made four times during the school year. The data were gathered by Taba (1955), who focused on the differences and similarities between boy-boy and girl-girl choices, and "mixed gender" ties. 4 Measurement Validity, Reliability, Accuuacy, Error As we noted in Chapter 1, social network research is concerned with studying patterns of social structure.