By Walter Tape
Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Special courses Series.
Atmospheric halos are seen phenomena of a lot good looks and fascination. From our earliest identified documents, relationship from the Sumerian-Babylonian tradition of 4-5,000 years in the past, to trendy researchers, halos have saved us having a look skyward. as a result of gentle refracted via ice crystals floating within the surroundings, they could look at approximately any time and position. What do the ice crystals seem like, specially those who make the unique "odd radius" halos? what's the worth of the elusive perspective x, so serious to making a choice on the shapes of those crystals? What halo monitors will we comprehend good and what monitors will we no longer comprehend at all?
This booklet responds to such questions, and extra, with a multifaceted view of halo technological know-how. specialists and newcomers alike will locate this ebook the definitive source at the topic. positive aspects include:
- The "how to" in halo statement and photography
- Carefully analyzed photographs of infrequent halo screens and pyramidal ice crystals
- The early background of halo science
- Elegant new causes of ways halos form
- Authoritative dialogue of strange radius halos
We invite you to gaze up and observe the realm of halos.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–8):
Chapter 2 Ice Crystal Gallery (pages 9–20):
Chapter three The Beginnings of Halo technological know-how (pages 21–32):
Chapter four How Halos shape (pages 33–42):
Chapter five Halo Simulations (pages 43–50):
Chapter 6 Halos From Prismatic Crystals (pages 51–64):
Chapter 7 bizarre Radius Halos are genuine (pages 65–70):
Chapter eight peculiar Radius round Halos (pages 71–89):
Chapter nine a few Crystallography (pages 91–100):
Chapter 10 Pyramidal Ice Crystals (pages 101–112):
Chapter eleven the quest for perspective x (pages 113–128):
Chapter 12 Refraction Halos and Wedge attitude (pages 129–132):
Chapter thirteen The Spin Vector (pages 133–136):
Chapter 14 A User's advisor to Halo Poles (pages 137–144):
Chapter 15 peculiar Radius Plate Arcs (pages 145–164):
Chapter sixteen bizarre Radius Column Arcs (pages 165–178):
Chapter 17 abnormal Radius Parry Arcs (pages 179–182):
Chapter 18 different Wedge Angles? (pages 183–194):
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Additional resources for Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X
1). 7 it is easy t o see why t h e circumzenith arc is part of a horizontal circle; t h e arc must lie on t h e intersection of a horizontal plane with t h e celestial sphere. " T h e y show how t o construct t h e halos, starting with t h e crystal shapes a n d orientations and using t h e laws of reflection a n d refraction. If you understood those figures, you m a y enjoy thinking about t h e light point diagrams for other r a y p a t h s or other crystal orientations. Try, for example, t h e ray p a t h 3 2 6 in oriented plate crystals; it contributes t o t h e subsun.
Similarly, each of the curved segments in Wegener's tangent arc is a rotated parhelion. T h e parhelia come in pairs, one in the upper tangent arc and one in t h e lower, with each pair corresponding to a different fixed horizontal direction of the crystal axis. T h e apparent asymmetry between the two parhelia in each pair is only due to Wegener's choice of projection. This i n s i g h t — t h a t column arcs consist of r o t a t e d plate arcs—goes all t h e way back t o Huygens. 6), even t h o u g h his ice particle model was not correct.
5 HALOS Helic, subhelic, anthelic, and subanthelic points on the celestial sphere. even though t h e circles themselves do depend on t h e direction of t h e crystal axis. Column orientations therefore have a n a t u r a l potential t o focus light on t h e helic, subhelic, anthelic, and subanthelic points; near these points many different crystal orientations can work together t o light t h e sky. W h e t h e r you actually get light at these points, however, depends on a n u m b e r of other factors as well.