By M. Stephan
The center East, a region infamous for political violence and a democratic deficit, boasts a wealthy yet little-known heritage of nonviolent civilian-led struggles for rights and freedoms. Ordinary Egyptians, Palestinians, Turks, Israelis, Iranians, Kuwaitis and different heart Easterners have, over the last century, used "weapons" together with boycotts, moves, demonstrations, sit-ins, and other methods of civil disobedience and noncooperation to courageously challenge entrenched strength and to increase democratic self-rule. This booklet demanding situations the oft-heard declare that nonviolent resistance "can't paintings" in the Middle East by chronicling essentially the most major nonviolent campaigns opposed to colonialism, international profession, authoritarianism, and structural injustice within the region. Other chapters examine the function of strategy, political humor, faith, Islamist hobbies, and exterior actors in advancing and impeding democratization and sturdy governance. This quantity, which includes scholarly and activist perspectives, will be of specific curiosity to academics, policymakers, journalists, and neighborhood civic leaders attracted to the Middle East, nonviolent motion, social routine, democratization, and struggle and peace experiences – in addition to proficient normal readers attracted to realizing current convulsions within the heart East.
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Extra resources for Civilian Jihad: Nonviolent Struggle, Democratization, and Governance in the Middle East
23. 24. 25. 29 to maintain the initiative in the conflict and to keep their opponent off balance. In addition, new tactics may be developed around new technologies, such as the Internet and cell phones. Examples of new tactics using these technologies include sending mass SMS messages and establishing Web sites, social networks, blogs, and listservs that defy government restrictions. Sharp, Part Two: The Methods of Nonviolent Action. As mentioned earlier, what qualifies as an act of nonviolent action is context specific, therefore what qualifies as an act of nonviolent protest and persuasion is also context specific.
Successful movements target their communications at a variety of audiences, including their own supporters, uncommitted or neutral groups, and their opponent’s supporters. Three characteristics that often accompany the communications of successful movements are an emphasis of common values and interests, an inclusive vision, and an avoidance of threats. Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gene Sharp, Waging Nonviolent Struggle: 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential (Boston: Porter Sargent, 2005), 547.
22 Nonviolent tactics have also been divided according to the operational functions that they serve, and this form of classification emphasizes the desired impact of the actions. For example, tactics have been categorized as communication tactics (petitions, letters, displaying symbols, distributing literature), capacity-building tactics (community service projects), attack tactics (rallies, blockading buildings), and denying tactics (boycotts and strikes). 23 Communications Some form of communication accompanies almost all nonviolent tactics.