By James E. Hansen, Taro Takahashi
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Published by means of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.
We have equipped the ebook into traditional parts similar to the ambience, ocean and cryosphere, yet those are certain jointly through the suggestions method; hence the paper in numerous sections overlap greatly. If the ebook contributes a small quantity towards a greater realizing of the function which feedbacks play in coupling various components of the weather approach and in deciding on weather sensitivity, it's going to have served its objective good.
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Additional info for Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity
A widely referenced report on the carbon dioxide/climate question (Climate Research Board, NAS, 1979) suggests that the heat capacity of the ocean may delay a full climate response to increasing carbon dioxide by "several decades". A more precise prediction of the delaying effect of the ocean which will allow for a varying rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide increase is urgently needed. Data on ocean currents and water mass properties provide a source of infor- mation for building ocean models. Transient tracer data for tritium, bomb-produced C14 and freon would appear to be valuable analogues for the vertical penetration of heat anomalies.
1, 241-248, 1971. , An updated estimate of wind stress on the World Ocean, Mon. , 96, 6374, 1968. , Ocean tracer distributions - a preliminary numerical experiment, Tellus, 23, 371372, 1971. D. B. , 1977. Levitus, S. Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean, NOAA Prof. Paper, No. S. , 1982. Manabe, S. T. Wetherald, On the distribution of climate change resulting from an increase in carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere, J. Atmos. , 37, 99-118, 1980. , U. Siegenthaler, U. Schotterer and A. Gugelman, A box diffusion model to study the carbon dioxide exchange in nature.
A scale depth of the thermocline may then be BRYAN ET AL. Copyright American Geophysical Union 35 Geophysical Monograph Series Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity Vol. " Normalized penetration depths are divided by the pycnocline scale depth. Bryan et al. Present study Observed (1982) Levitus (1982) Pycnocline scale depth 389 Penetration depth at 10 yr Normalized penetration depth at 10 yr defined as, 1 ds = - cosi -H 0 ao'dz (18) where H is total depth of the ocean. Values of ds for the real ocean based on data by Levitus (1982), and ds for the model are shown in Table 2.