By David R. Olson
While this e-book used to be first released, David Olson used to be analyzing the constructing illustration and use of diagonals within the context of a lot higher questions, questions additionally explored by way of Vygotsky, Cassirer, Gombrich, and Bruner. those contain such matters as conceptual improvement, conceptual switch, and stage-like transitions in one's wisdom and trust. a few of these difficulties stay at almost an analogous degree of way to this present day. different difficulties have certainly been solved or no less than come towards answer, top the writer to contemplate the appropriate cognitive representations that allowed for the cognitive progress he tested in such scrupulous element.
the writer hopes that either readers and re-readers of this quantity could be resulted in ask yourself -- as he did whereas engaged on the booklet -- simply what there's a few basic diagonal that makes its copy so tough. In so doing, readers will back be reminded of the amazing assets that youngsters carry to endure on their realizing of the realm in addition to the blind spots that no easy telling can fairly fill in.
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Extra info for Cognitive Development. The Child's Acquisition of Diagonality
Finally, it was possible to build alternative checkerboards that would permit us to make a better assessment of the problem difficulty. T h e Gestalt laws of perceptual organization suggest that such factors as edgedness and proximity m a y serve as a perceptual support or a distractor in the reproduction of such visual patterns as we have presented to the child (Werner, 1948; Hertz, 1956; Kohler, 1929). On the checker- •oooo o®ooo oo®oo ooo®o oooo® •® o°o o %o o o oo • 0 0 Original square 0 0 Diagonal Round Fig.
T H E N A T U R E OF T H E DIFFICULTY right-oriented diagonal; the problems on the Diagonal Board were the left edge, the second row from the b o t t o m , and the right-oriented diagonal. Each problem was presented twice in the series. A small candy reinforcer was given to the child at the completion of each trial. Other than that, the same procedure was used here as in the first study, in that E showed the child the model, had him run his finger over the pattern, removed the model, and then asked the child to try to reproduce it.
This factor corresponds to the empirical fact that the highest proportion of these young children could c o p y a pattern along an edge. Even then, some edges are more difficult than others; t o p and b o t t o m seem to be easier than left and right side, but this is complicated b y the effects of the position of the Experimenter's model checkerboard relative t o the child's checkerboard. For example, if the boards are set side b y side, left-right errors predominate; if the boards are set one a b o v e the other, t o p - b o t t o m errors predominate.