By Elisabeth Krimmer, Patricia Anne Simpson
Enlightened conflict investigates the a number of and intricate interactions among conflict and Enlightenment suggestion. even if the Enlightenment is routinely pointed out with the beliefs of development, everlasting peace, cause, and self-determination, Enlightenment discourse opened up in the course of a interval of lengthy eu conflict from the Seven Years' struggle to the Napoleonic conquest of Europe. The essays during this quantity discover the palpable impression of struggle on eighteenth-century proposal and argue for an ideological affinity between battle, Enlightenment notion, and its legacy. The essays are interdisciplinary, attractive with heritage, artwork historical past, philosophy, army concept, gender stories, and literature and with old occasions and cultural contexts from the early Enlightenment via German Classicism and Romanticism. the quantity enriches our knowing of conflict within the eighteenth century and exhibits how theories and practices of battle impacted options of subjectivity, nationwide id, gender, and paintings. It additionally sheds gentle at the modern dialogue of the legitimacy of violence through juxtaposing theories of conflict, strategies of revolution, and human rights discourses. participants: Johannes Birgfeld, David Colclasure, Sara Eigen Figal, Ute Frevert, Wolf Kittler, Elisabeth Krimmer, Waltraud Maierhofer, Arndt Niebisch, Felix Saure, Galili Shahar, Patricia Anne Simpson, Inge Stephan.
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Extra resources for Enlightened War: German Theories and Cultures of Warfare from Frederick the Great to Clausewitz (Studies in German Literature Linguistics and Culture)
15: col. ] Here too we encounter enmity as the failure to uphold mutual obligation. The complexities of declaring war, the right to wage war, and the various kinds of war are then discussed in the entry, but of primary interest here is the emphasis on the failure of obligation — the all-too-human failure of obligation — that incites belligerency. Further, both obligations and war can exist only between free and equal parties: peoples (Völker) or states with legitimate rulers. ”11 For Frederick, the study of war was necessarily constant; peace was a process, an artifice that required effort and practice and had limited duration.
Frederick’s own voluminous writings, as well as the work of the modest scholar, classical philologist, and Gymnasium teacher in Kaiserslautern Johann Valentin Embser (1749–83), offer disparate points of entry into discussions of bellicosity, but both writers anchored their arguments and the language used to construct them deliberately within Enlightenment discourse. Both used an appeal to reason and the deployment of rational argument to acknowledge the passions of both individuals and nations, and ultimately to channel emotional energies that are themselves not governed by reason and thus cannot simply be reasoned away.
Hegel, Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts oder Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im Grundrisse, vol. 7 of Werke, ed. Eva Moldenhauer and Karl Markus Michel (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1976), 492–93. 19 Friedrich Hölderlin, Sämtliche Werke, ed. Friedrich Beissner, 8 vols. (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1965), 3:127. 20 See Kleist’s “Germania:” “Horchet! — Durch die Nacht, ihr Brüder, / Welch ein Donnerruf hernieder? / Stehst du auf, Germania? / Ist der Tag der Rache da? / Deutsche, mutger Völkerreigen, / Meine Söhne, die, geküßt, / In den Schoß mir kletternd steigen, / Die mein Mutterarm umschließt, / Meines Busens Schutz und Schirmer, / Unbesiegtes Marsenblut, / Enkel der Kohortenstürmer, / Römerüberwinderbrut!